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A spectrometer (spectrophotometer, spectrograph or spectroscope) is an instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. The variable measured is most often the light's intensity but could also, for instance, be the polarization state. The independent variable is usually the wavelength of the light or a unit directly proportional to the photon energy, such as wave number or electron volts, which has a reciprocal relationship to wavelength. A spectrometer is used in spectroscopy for producing spectral lines and measuring their wavelengths and intensities.

Sample preparation and Test procedure:

Spectroscopy is conducted for two types of materials.

  1. 1. Liquid metal
  2. 2. Solid scrap material and solid final product
  3. In case of liquid metal, following steps are done:


  • • At first, liquid metal is collected from the furnace by using a small pot.
  • • After that, pot casting was done and sample is separated from the pot.
  • • Then ingot sample is cut in to a suitable shape by using a cutting disc.
  • • Prepared sample is then polished in a moving wheel.
  • • At last, polished sample is then placed is the spectrometer and test is conducted.



A universal testing machine, also known as a universal tester, materials testing machine or materials test frame, is used to test the tensile stress and compressive strength of materials. It is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures.

Sample preparation & Test procedure:

• Following steps are conducted to prepare the sample for tensile test.

• At first, sample was cut in a suitable and standard size from just ready billet.

  • • Then, it is taken to the physical lab and the entire necessary dimensions are carefully measured.
  • • After that, diameter of the sample is again measured by using a slide calipers for finer reading.
  • • To do so, the gauge length is carefully measured and marked by paint.
  • • The power breaker of the machine is then turned on.
  • • All the equipments are then carefully inspected for defects and leaks, and it is confirmed that load valve is completely closed.
  • • Then, the sample is placed between middle of the platen and fixed with the grip; simultaneously the load is also calibrated.
  • • The safety shield is placed in front of the sample.
  • • When sample is in exact position so that, upper and lower grip is placed exactly with the coherent position, then the test is started.
  • • After that, appropriate load range is selected and the valve (load) is slowly opened to increase pressure.
  • • Once the sample is failed, the load valve is become close and release valve is bocome open as soon as possible.
  • • The release valve is closed, when, all the loads are removed.
  • • Right after the failure of the sample, the maximum reduction, final gauge length, and final diameter is carefully measured and data are provides to the computer.

Fig: Computer attached with UTM: A computer is attached with the Universal Testing Machine. The tested data’s of UTM are transferred to this computer. Then the computer shows the graphical representation of Yield Strength, Ultimate Tensile Strength, Elongation of Reinforcement & other mechanical properties.




The bend test is essentially measuring a metal‛s ductility. Ductility defines how easily a metal can bend without breaking. The higher the ductility of a metal, the more it can bend without breaking or becoming deformed from its original shape. This is important because certain metals must handle pressure without snapping yet still be ductile enough to bend slightly and not lose their support or shape. Copper and steel are two metals that have a high ductility and do well under pressure. The purpose of re-bend test is to measure the effect of strain ageing on steel. Strain ageing has embrittlement effect which takes place after cold deformation by diffusion of nitrogen in steel. Hence, there is limitation stated in some design codes to restrict the nitrogen content of steel to 0.012%.


Optical microscope is used to analyze microstructure of our products. Percentage of ferrite and pearlite can be measured which are the prime factors of ductility, strength and hardness. Internal surface, porosity and presence of tramp element can be clearly visible by optical microscope.


Computers are used to control the movement of cutting tools that is inserted with the machine. Perfect Rib and presence of shoulder are strictly maintained by this sophisticated machine.

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